The Republic of Azerbaijan is located in the east of the South Caucasus, south-west of the Caspian Sea. The total area of 86 sq. km. The territory of the Azerbaijan Republic is from north to south for 440 km and from west to east - 450 km. Azerbaijan shares borders with Russia in the north (390 km), Georgia to the north-west (471 km), with Armenia in the west (471 km), with Turkey in the south-west (15 km) and Iran in the south (765 km ). The length of the land borders of the republic is 2647 km, 816 km sea borders.
The capital of Azerbaijan, Baku city.
Nearly half of the territory of Azerbaijan occupied by mountains. In the north - the ridge of the Greater Caucasus in the south - the ridge of the Lesser Caucasus and the Kura lowlands in the south-east - Talish Mountains. The major minerals of the country - oil, gas, polimetal, the deposits of iron, aluminum, cobalt, mineral water. On the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan there are 8 climatic zones out of 11 possible. The territory of the republic has numerous river resources, rich in flora and rare fauna.
The first Azerbaijan Democratic Republic on the territory of Azerbaijan was proclaimed on 28 May 1918 and lasted 23 months. April 28, 1920 in the Azerbaijan was established Soviet power and it lasted until 1991. October 18, 1991 the Milli Majlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan adopted the Constitutional Act on State Independence of Azerbaijan Republic and proclaimed himself the heritor of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
The Constitution of Azerbaijan was adopted on 12 November 1995 by popular referendum.
Azerbaijan state is a democratic, legal, secular, unitary republic. State power in the Azerbaijan Republic is based on the principle of separation of powers: legislative power is exercised by the Milli Majlis of the Azerbaijan Republic, the executive power is vested in the President of the Azerbaijan Republic, the judicial power is exercised by the courts of the Azerbaijan Republic. In accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, the legislative, executive and judicial power interact and are independent within their powers.
Azerbaijan is a presidential republic. Azerbaijani President is the President of the Azerbaijan Republic. He represents the state of Azerbaijan in the country and in foreign relations and embodies the unity of the people of Azerbaijan and ensures the continuity of the Azerbaijan statehood, he is the guarantor of the independence and territorial integrity of the Azerbaijani state, Supreme Commander – in - chief of the Military Forces of Azerbaijan Republic.
Legislative power in the Azerbaijan Republic is implemented by Milli Majlis of Azerbaijan Republic. Milli Majlis is a unicameral parliament. Milli Mejlis performs a legislative function. Acts are adopted solely by Milli Majlis of Azerbaijan Republic.
The basis of the judiciary is the courts, which do not depend on the responsible representatives of the executive power. Judicial power is exercised by the Constitutional Court of Azerbaijan Republic, Supreme Court of Azerbaijan Republic, the appellate courts of the Azerbaijan Republic, general and specialized courts of the Azerbaijan Republic.
Important role in the political system of Azerbaijan bested by local authorities. Local governments are formed through elections. The State guarantees the local governments to judicial protection, recovery of additional costs associated with the execution of decisions of the branch executive power.
Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic is autonomous state within the Azerbaijan
Republic. Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic is an integral part of the Azerbaijan Republic. The Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic, the laws of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic and Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic are obligatory on the territory of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. The Constitution and laws of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, adopted by the Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic must not contradict the Constitution and laws, respectively, of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of Cabinet of Ministers of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic - Constitution and laws of the Azerbaijan Republic, decrees of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic and decrees of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Republic.
Legislative power in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic implemented by Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, executive power - the Cabinet of Ministers of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, the judicial authority – the courts of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. The highest official of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic is the Chairman of Ali Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic.
The highest priority objective of the Azerbaijan state is to provide rights and liberties of person and citizen. Azerbaijanian state takes care about improvement of prosperity of all people and each citizen, their social protection and proper living conditions, development of culture, education, public health, science, arts, protects environment, historical, material and spiritual heritage of people. Religion in the Azerbaijan Republic is separated from state. Spreading and propaganda of religions humiliating people’ dignity and contradicting the principles of humanism are prohibited. State educational system is secular.
Azerbaijanian language is official language of the Azerbaijan Republic. Azerbaijan Republic ensures free use and development of other languages spoken by the people.
The monetary unit of the Azerbaijan Republic is manat.
Azerbaijan Republic has a diversified industry and agriculture, extensive transport infrastructure, development of science, a rich ancient culture. In a country dominated by heavy industry. Developed industries such industries as oil and gas, petrochemical, machine building, metallurgy, construction materials, light industry. Agriculture is mainly specialized in silk production, viticulture, livestock, vegetable growing and gardening. In the transportation of passengers and cargo major role played by railway, highway, air and sea transport.
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