Judicial system of Azerbaijan has a rich history which reflects the valorous past of our country and struggle of our people for independence. An indicator of centuries-old tradition of statehood of the Azerbaijan Republic and the brightest period of the history of the development of its judicial system was the Day of May 28, 1918 which had been designated in the history, as the day of formation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and appointment of Mr. Halil bay Hasmammadov as the first Minister of Justice.
After taking all necessary measures, by the decision of Council of Ministers from October 1, 1918 the activity of the Baku District Court, and Public Prosecutor’s Office which affiliated in it was broken off, and taking into consideration the inevitability of establishment of the Judicial Chamber, on November 14 the Provision on Judicial Court of Azerbaijan was adopted. On March 16, 1919 an official opening of the Judicial Chamber of Azerbaijan took place in the building of the Baku District Court and since then a lot of cases from the District Courts of Baku and Ganja had been sent to the Judicial Chamber.
In the beginning of 1919 under the Ministry of Justice where the Judicial Court operated, a special commission on preparation of the bills covered a judicial system was set up and most part of the bills was proponed in the parliament.
Drastic changes in the judicial system of Azerbaijan began when the Golden Horde XI of the Russia occupied the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic on April 27-28, 1920. By the decision of the Azerbaijan Revolutionary Committee from May 13, 1920 which liquidated all system of justice, the National Commissariat of Justice was set up. However after the liquidation of the commissariat in 1930, its credentials were delegated to the Supreme Court, to the General Executive Committee and other bodies. By the decision of the General Executive Committee from 1933 the National Commissariat of Justice was reorganized. The Commissioner of Justice simultaneously had the credentials of the Attorney of Republic, and his deputy had the credentials of the Chairman of the Supreme Court. After the adoption of the new Provision of the National Commissariat of Justice in 1937 its credentials were considerably limited. By the decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic from December 7, 1959 the Ministry of Justice was liquidated again, and the management and supervision over all activity of judicial bodies and conducting of judicial statistics was entrusted to the Supreme Court. The next establishment of the Ministry of Justice was in the period of Presidency of our National leader Mr. Heydar Aliyev. Thus, by the decision of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic from October 27, 1970 the Ministry of Justice was established, and a new stage in the history of justice of Azerbaijan began.
Basic changes in judicial system of Azerbaijan began when the country won its independence. In the result of the consecutive judicial-legal reformation which was made by our national leader Mr. Heydar Aliyev basic changes in the legal system of the country began. New advanced laws were passed and a new three-stage judicial system was formed for a short period of time. A decision about the selection of the judges by testing or examination and interview which corresponded to the international requirements was accepted for starting the activity of the new judicial system. Under the Presidency of Mr. Heydar Aliyev there was formed a Judicial-Legal Council. Judicial-Legal Council provided election of judges up-to-date the international requirements. The representatives of different layers were represented from among the elected persons, and it was an important step on the way of establishment of the independent judicial power.
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